Sunday, 9 September 2018

Makers of modern India-Ramachandra Guha-pdf free download

Makers of modern India-Ramachandra Guha-pdf free download

Makers of modern India-Ramachandra Guha-pdf free download
The striking thing about Makers of modern India is that the men and women who made its history also wrote most authoritatively about it. The country’s leading politicians were its leading political thinkers. This is especially true of the trinity of Mohandas K. Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and B.R. Ambedkar. The first was the father of Indian nationalism who, between the 1920s and 1940s, forged a popular, countrywide movement against British colonial rule.
Makers of modern India written by  Ramachandra Guha here you get Makers of modern India pdf free download
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The second was the architect of the modern Indian nation-state, serving as prime minister from the nation’s birth in August 1947 until his death in May 1964. The third was the great leader of the country’s oppressed castes who also oversaw, as the country’s first law minister, the drafting of the Indian Constitution, which came into effect on 26 January 1950. But even as they fought and struggled, led and governed, Gandhi, Nehru, and Ambedkar wrote at great length about the world they saw and shaped.
Gandhi’s Collected Works, published by the Government of India between 1958 and 1994, run to more than ninety volumes. More than fifty volumes of Nehru’s Selected Works have so far been published by a trust created in his name. In the 1980s the government of Ambedkar’s home state, Maharashtra, published sixteen volumes of his writings, each volume sometimes exceeding a thousand pages.
Although many of the entries in these collected or selected works are routine letters or speeches, others represent extended essays on subjects such as national identity, democracy, religious culture, and social justice. Indians in general (and Indian writers in particular) tend to be prolix and verbose, but in these instances at least quantity has not necessarily been at odds with quality.
This combination of political activism and theoretical reflection was not peculiar to these three men. Other Indian politicians and reformers were also serious writers, articulating, in their own more restricted spheres, ideas that had a powerful resonance in their own day and continue to do so in ours.
Makers of modern India is unusual in having had so many politicians who were also original political thinkers. However, it is not unique. In the making of some other nations, activists and campaigners have likewise doubled up as authors and polemicists.
The first generation of American nationalists—Madison, Hamilton, Jefferson, Franklin— were certainly men of action and of thought. This was also true of Jose Marti of Cuba, Leopold Senghor of  Nkrumah of Ghana, who participated in movements to free their country from foreign rule while writing important works of propaganda and/or scholarship.

Nations tend to produce thinker-activists at their birth and in moments of crisis. When, in the middle decades of the last century, England and France found their national sovereignty threatened by Nazi Germany, the patriots who led the resistance also wrote most evocatively about it. The books written by Winston Churchill before and after the Second World War were to win him the Nobel Prize for Literature. Likewise, Charles de Gaulle produced a series of stirring works in the 1940s and 1950s, which defined anew the meanings of France and of being French.
A third conjuncture that produces the politician-as-writer is a revolutionary change in the system of government. Paradigmatic here are Lenin and Mao, the acknowledged leaders of the Russian and Chinese revolutions respectively. Pre-eminently men of action, both also wrote influential works of political and economic analysis.
Their essays and books were required reading in their own homeland, while also attracting attention in other countries.
This wider history notwithstanding, I believe India still constitutes a special case. Its distinctiveness is threefold. First, the tradition of the thinker-activist persisted far longer in India than elsewhere.
While the men who founded the United States in the late eighteenth century had fascinating ideas about democracy and nationhood, thereafter American politicians have merely governed and ruled, or sometimes misgoverned and misruled.
 Their ideas, such as these are, have come from professional ideologues or intellectuals. On the other hand, from the first decades of the nineteenth century until the last decades of the twentieth century, the most influential political thinkers in India were, as often as not, its most influential political actors.
Long before India was conceived of as a nation, in the extended run-up to Indian independence, and in the first few decades of freedom, the most interesting reflections on society and politics were offered by men (and women) who were in the thick of the political action.
Second, the relevance of individual thinkers too has lasted longer in India. For instance, Lenin’s ideas were influential for about seventy years, that is to say, from the time the Soviet state was founded to the time it disappeared.
 Mao’s heyday was even shorter—roughly three decades, from the victory of the Chinese Revolution in 1949 to the repudiation by Deng Xiaoping of his mentor’s ideas in the late 1970s. Turning to politicians in Western Europe, Churchill’s impassioned defense of the British Empire would find no takers after the 1950s.
 De Gaulle was famous for his invocation of the "grandeur de la France’, but those sentiments have now been (fortunately?) diluted and domesticated by the consolidation of the European Union.

 Makers of modern India
[ One should perhaps make a distinction here between the ‘thinking politician' and the ‘thinker-politician’. Of the leaders who came after the Founders, at least four American presidents have reflected deeply on questions of political and social reform—and then sought to act on their reflections.
These are Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and, Barack Obama, most recently Donald John Trump. However, the first three did not leave behind a body of writing that has stood the test of time.
The jury is still out on Trump: on the evidence of his two memoirs, he might yet, once he demits office as President, give us an original and insightful work on how democracy' functions—or malfunctions.]
On the other hand, as this book will demonstrate, Indian thinkers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries still speak in many ways to the concerns of the present.
A third difference has to do with the greater diversity of thinkers within the Indian political tradition. Even Gandhi and Nehru never held the kind of canonical status within their country as Mao or Lenin did in theirs. At any given moment, there were as many Indians who were opposed to their ideas as were guided by them.
Moreover, the range of issues debated and acted upon by politicians and social reformers appears to have been far greater in India than in other countries. This depth and diversity of thought were, as I argue below, in good part a product of the depth and diversity of the society itself.

Makers of modern India

Makers of modern India-Ramachandra Guha-pdf free download

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